Plato was very particular that Atlantis was situated within the Atlantic Ocean which took it’s identify because it was deemed the “Ocean of the Atlanteans”. Hence, Mediterranean places similar to Troy, Crete (Thera), Carthage, the Bosphorus, and so on., routinely disqualify as the location of Atlantis.
Nevertheless, one ought to rigorously recall that what the ancients referred to as by the identify of Atlantic Ocean, or others comparable to Outer Ocean, Kronius Oceanus, Mare Magnum, Mare Oceanum, and so on., was not the same one we now tackle by that identify. As we talk about intimately elsewhere [LINK], the Atlantic Ocean (or simply “Ocean”) of the ancients of the occasions of Plato, Herodotus, Aristotle and others was the whole of the earth encircling ocean.
This distinction in nomenclature is important, for it ties in with the basis of the problem, and explains why all researchers up to now have failed to seek out the true website of Atlantis.
The ancients theorized that the prevailing world of that time which consisted of Eurasia and Africa, the so-called Historic World was a roughly circular plate surrounded on all sides by the Ocean (“Atlantic”). Outdoors this Round Ocean, “containing” it, so to speak, was the true “Continent”, the Americas, which encircled it all around. It was in this Outer Continent that the ancients placed Eden and other such legendary Paradises which they remotely related with Atlantis.
The very phrase “Ocean” derives from the Sanskrit açayana which means “encircling all around”. Therefore, in the same approach that the Mediterranean regions are mechanically discredited as attainable websites for Atlantis – for they neither lie within the Atlantic Ocean nor outdoors the Pillars of Hercules – regions situated in the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean have to be included, for they certainly fulfill these two conditions.
Avienus basing himself on very historic Phoenician sources, placed the Hesperides and the island of Geryon, Erytheia, “in the Ocean of the Atlanteans”. Now, from Avienus’ and other detailed descriptions, Erytheia lay in the Orient, in the Erythraean (or Indian Ocean), to which it gave its identify. Subsequently, we see that the identify “Atlantic Ocean” or “Ocean of the Atlanteans” originally utilized to the Indian Ocean.
This identify was later transferred, first to each oceans and then to the present Atlantic Ocean. We conclude, hence, that Atlantis have to be sought first of all within the Indian Ocean, and solely secondarily in what we presently name “Atlantic Ocean” Seaports.
One of probably the most fascinating options of Plato’s Atlantis was the huge community of canals used for the double function of irrigating its in depth agricultural plains and for the fluvial transportation of their produce.
The capital of the Atlantean empire was crossed and surrounded by these canals, forming a figure referred to as “Celtic Cross” or “Crossed Circle”, thus This image is usually confused with that of the Earth and even of the Sun. However it certainly initially utilized, as in historic Egypt, to the land of Paradise. This community of canals also contained dams and sluice-gates to regulate the move of the rivers. It was a marvel of hydraulic engineering, the likes of that are only attested within the historic Far East and, to a lesser scale, in Incan America.
Moreover, Plato specifically states that Atlantis was a fantastic naval power and that its many ships actively traded with probably the most distant nations of the abroad. Therefore, it is idle to suppose that powers of limited naval talents such as the Mayan empire or the Celto-Iberian nations of that epoch or, even more, the Canaries and Northwest Africa might ever have been the true website of Atlantis. The Incas of Peru had an ideal naval potential, and there’s ample proof, confirmed by Thor Heyerdahl and his Kon Tiki expedition, that they made routine contacts with the Far East by way of the Pacific Ocean.
The Incas of Peru also maintained a daily business contact with the Mexican empires. However their empire was situated far up within the mighty Andes, and didn’t embrace good seaports nor did the Incas base their financial system on naval commerce. Water is scarce of their region of the world, in distinction to what Plato affirms of Atlantis. On this merchandise, we have now certified nations corresponding to Troy, Celtiberia, Tartessos, in addition to these of the African and European Northwest, for they’re, no less than mythically, very a lot related with navigation. Nevertheless, they all present hardly any traces of the in depth network of canals described by Plato, or any strong evidence of their early maritime potential.
Incan Peru additionally affords no concrete proof of in depth seaports, although we recognize its maritime talent. Maybe these ports and canals have been submerged in the cataclysm, though any confirmatory proof of that is undoubtedly lacking. Crete was undoubtedly a maritime power, and so have been the Scandinavian nations with their world roving Vikings. The two Indies (India and Indonesia) are acknowledged for his or her intensive commerce with the traditional Middle East and the Far East, and probably even the Americas.
The African Northwest was settled by the Phoenicians, who had colonies in Tartessos, Carthage and Cadiz (Gadeira). Nevertheless, it is troublesome to determine that such colonies certainly date from Atlantean occasions, as the archaeological searches level to post-Bronze Age settlements only. Certainly, these are so small as to recommend that they have been mere outposts of the Phoenicians, used for the re-supplying of their ships throughout their frequent travels to the Indies, with which they maintained a daily commerce from remotest antiquity.
On Antarctica and on some potential sunken Atlantic island or continent we have now any no clearcut, scientifically acceptable proof, and the matter awaits confirmation by the specialists. Their pronouncements thus far have unanimously affirmed that each notions are scientifically preposterous, a conclusion that should not be taken flippantly. The necessary factor to remember is that the primary function of Atlantis was its naval prowess and the spectacular network of canals and sluices for both navigational functions, in addition to for agricultural irrigation. Such wonders of hydraulic engineering we only find in the Far East and, maybe, within the Amazonian extensions of the Incan empire, as some authorities consider.
Plato’s text is somewhat confused on the actual measurement of Atlantis. Certainly it must be understood that he speaks of two Atlantises: the true one and the “skeletal” realm he calls by the identify of “Primeval Greece”. By such “Greeks” ( the enemies and vanquishers of Atlantis) Plato certainly means the Aryans and their lengthy misplaced Aryanavarta (“Country of the Aryans”) that is certainly the sunken realm of Lemurian Atlantis.
Truly, the “skeleton” of this primordial Atlantis now types the Indonesian archipelago, whose islands are the volcanic peaks that remained above the water when the immense expanse of the Elysian Plains sunk underneath the sea. These islands at the moment are lowered to the Realm of the Lifeless recognized to the Greeks as the Islands of the Blest. But they as soon as shaped an enormous continent, now principally sunken beneath the South China Sea. This big piece of land was, then, indeed “greater than Asia [Minor] and Libya [North Africa] put together”, precisely as Plato asserted of Atlantis.
The second Atlantis of Plato and different mythographers is that half of India whose stays can now be observed in the Indus and the Ganges valleys. Each have been the sites of magnificent civilizations corresponding to these of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. Plato also speaks of the Atlantean capital, referred to as Atlantis by him and Poseidonis by certain Atlantologists. This royal capital, indeed reserved for the nobility, the priesthood and the royal guard, has typically been confused with the whole of Atlantis by a number of researchers. But is was solely a small island, the sacred capital of the whole empire. We discover, to make certain, several capitals that imitated, or attempted to imitate, the Atlantean capital.
One such was the royal capital of the Incas, situated in an islet of Lake Titicaca, within the neighborhood of Tiahuanaco (Bolivia). Another one was the island of Thera (Santorini), perhaps the sacred capital of Minoan Crete, as some Atlantologists will. Troy too was described by Homer as becoming this sacred paradigm, and to have been submerged by the Flood after its destruction by the Bronze Age “Greeks”. Schliemann’s “Troy” in Turkey hardly matches this commonplace description. So, it is arduous to see how it might ever have been recognized to either Plato’s or to Homer’s paradigm. The Aztecan capital in Mexico, Tenochtitlan, additionally followed an inland adaptation of the primordial mannequin, with the Holy Mountain on the middle (Mt. Atlas) changed by a pyramid, and the crossing and encircling canals changed by avenues and majestic gateways.
This Sacred Geometry is abundantly attested in the Far East (Angkor, Java, and so on.). So, there may be little doubt that the mannequin got here to us from there. Cruder copies are additionally discovered in the Scandinavia and in Celtiberia, in monuments (cromlechs) similar to Stonehenge and the likes. The universality of this custom attests the truth of Atlantis as the prototype of the cities that comply with the model of the “Celestial Jerusalem”. In India and Indonesia we find a profusion of whole cities and temple complexes comparable to Angkor Thom, Angkor Wat and Borobudur, which have been based mostly on the model of Atlantis’ capital both in full measurement or as smaller scaled down replicas.
The Sacred Geometry of Atlantis’ capital city is itself a reproduction of the world, in an idealized type that dates from remotest antiquity. The 4 quadrants of the Cross of Atlantis characterize the 4 Corners of the World, that’s, the Four Continents (Eurasia, Africa, America and Australia). Likewise, the Middle represents the continent of Atlantis, sunken beneath the sea, and lowered to a tiny portion (Indonesia) of mere insular proportions.
Holy Mountain and Volcanoes The important function of Atlantis was its Holy Mountain. This mountain was positioned at the middle of the capital and was identified with Atlas himself in his position as “Pillar of the Sky”. As the legend goes, when this pillar collapsed, the sky fell down upon the world, destroying and asphyxiating it. In actuality that is an allegory of the explosion of Mt. Atlas ù certainly a volcanic peak ù and of the cataclysm that prompted the top of the Pleistocene Ice Age, as we argue in detail elsewhere.
The Holy Mountain that we find in primarily all religions and sacred traditions regarding Paradise is certainly Mt. Atlas, the archetype of all of them. We encounter the Holy Mountain underneath names akin to Mt. Meru within the Indies, Mt. Calvary (or Golgotha) in Christianism, Mt. Qaf (“Skull” = Calvary) in Islamism, Mt. Kailasa (idem) in Shivaism, Mt. Salvat (or Calvat = “Skull”) in Catharism, Mt. Olympos in Greece, and so on.. all such derive instantly from the Atlantean mannequin, each within the New and the Previous worlds. Mt. Olympos, for example, derives its identify from the Greek Olmos Hippous, which means “the Mountain of the Centaurs”.
However the Centaurs (Khentarfos) derive their identify and their fantasy from the Gandharvas of India, the place Mt. Meru known as “the Mountain of the Gandharvas”. This reality exhibits the Indian origin of the myths of historic Greece. Again, the Holy Mountain ù this time immediately related with an Atlas figure (Ayar Cachi) turned to stone ù can also be found in Peru as the Huanacauri of the Incas. In reality, wherever we discover the myth of the Holy Mountain of Paradise, we’re capable of hint it back to Mt. Meru and the Indies, that’s, to Atlantis.
In symbolic type, the Holy Mountain can also be represented as a pyramid or an obelisk, or comparable buildings. These embrace artefacts such because the pylons of Egyptian temples, the towers of the Babylonian ziggurats, the spires of the Gothic cathedrals and the Hindu gopuras and pyramidal temples. The pyramids ù above all of the step pyramids of Egypt (Zozer’s), of Mexico, of Peru and of the Far East (China, Japan) ù are all replicas of Mt. Meru, which can also be shaped as a four-sided pyramid in Hindu traditions.
The pyramidal temples of India have all been destroyed by the Muslim invaders, who replaced them with mosques and palaces. But many have been reconstructed based on the former paradigm that of the Holy Mountain. Nevertheless, the most effective examples extant are those of Angkor (Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom) and of Java (Baphuon, Borobudur) which replicate not solely the Holy Mountain, but the sacred capital of Atlantis itself. As we already stated, the Holy Mountain of Atlantis, Mt. Atlas, was an enormous volcanic peak which exploded, taking the sacred capital beneath, in its wake. So, this is another important function of Atlantis that can’t be forgotten when looking for for the location of Atlantis.
To offer a selected instance, the archetypal Jerusalem was characterized by the central presence of Mt. Zion. This Holy Mountain is absolutely the same as Mt. Sinai. Mt. Sinai is usually described as a terrifying volcano whose “pillar of fire and smoke” truly guided the Israelites of their exodus from the location of their destroyed paradise. This paradise ù which lay in Primordial Egypt (or Eden), slightly than in the nation now so named ù is indeed Indonesia, the unique homeland of the Jews.
Hence, it is a waste of time to hunt Atlantis outdoors the areas laid low with volcanism and earthquakes. Such regions are indeed fairly few on the planet. First there’s Thera, the favorite of the extra scientifically minded Atlantologists, exactly as a result of of this function. The realms of the Incas and the Mayas can also be steadily castigated by this sort of occasion, but apparently by no means in the scale preconized by Plato and others. The purpose for that is that their volcanoes are usually not of an explosive nature, in contrast with these of the Far East. The similar absence of explosive volcanism appears to be true of Scandinavia and of Greenland and Antarctica.
No volcanoes exist in Schliemann’s Troy, in Tartessos (Spain) and in Celtiberia (France and British Isles). India has no volcanoes, however is certainly regularly victimized by devastating earthquakes. So, we’re left, on this account, with the Indies and with Thera as probable places, and with the opposite volcanic areas of the globe as quite unlikely candidates. The non-volcanic areas can perhaps be safely excluded from our listing.
Indonesia is probably the most volcanically lively region on the planet. This is attested within historical occasions by cataclysms such as the explosive eruption of the volcanoes Krakatoa and Tambora, and of others such within the area of Indonesia. Sunda Strait ù the location of the ferocious Krakatoa volcano ù is indeed the enormous volcanic caldera of this semi-submarine volcano. Lake Toba, in Sumatra, is deemed earth’s largest volcanic caldera, absolutely 100 km across. One other immense volcanic caldera of the region, having a comparable measurement, is the one of Lake Taupo, in New Zealand.
All these big calderas outcome from big volcanic explosions which occurred in relatively current geological occasions, some 70 kya (kiloyears in the past). So, the geologic report of the area indicates the truth of incomparably giant disasters and the likelihood of worldwide cataclysms of hearth and water of the nature described by Plato and others in relation to paradisial Atlantis. The tektites that line a substantial portion of the oceanic beds of the area with an immense strewn subject is additional proof of nonetheless bigger cataclysms there, within the farther past. These tektites are believed to end result from a cometary or asteroidal impression which occurred at about 700 kya, that’s, properly inside the occasions of Man within the area. Tektites are glass beads, typically of a big measurement, resulting from such large impacts, which cause the melting and the ejection of the silicic rocks that underlie earth’s crust.
The tropical, pleasant climate of Atlantis is one of the central features of Plato’s Atlantis. The proven fact that the good philosopher was not idly inventing, however knew his marbles, is patent all over the place in his account.
To start out with, there’s the difficulty of the 2 crops a yr that he specifically mentions. The Greeks of Alexander have been marveled by this reality once they witnessed it in the Indus Valley. Two crops a yr ù usually of rice, wheat or barley ù happen not solely within the Indies, however virtually all over the place within the Far East. They are the end result of a felicitous combination of occasions that’s distinctive of this huge region of the world. In the summertime, the meltwaters of the Himalayas and different mountain glaciers of the area provide the riverine floods which might be used to irrigate the crops. This is executed by means of an artfully arranged network of dams, canals and terraces fairly like the ones described by Plato as present in Atlantis. Such a function is especially observable in the Indus and the Ganges valleys, to not point out Indonesia, China and neighboring regions. It is just in Peru and the remaining of the Incan empire that we find something comparable, despite the fact that of a far lesser scale.
The second yearly crop ù and typically even a third one ù is afforded by the monsoon rains that fall abundantly in the area in the course of the winter months. The monsoon winds, loaded with moisture and coolness, are additionally very helpful for navigation. Once more, they are a very particular function of Paradise in texts similar to those of Homer, of Hesiod and Josephus, as well as of several other Classical authors.
The monsoon winds are mythically the same as the legendary Boreas that blew from Hyperborea, the legendary website of Apollo’s Island of the Sun. This island can also be referred to as by names similar to Hypereia, Delos, Erythia, Phoenicia, Ortygia, and so forth.. In reality, all such islands have been allegories of the paradisial island of Taprobane (Sumatra).
Many different details talked about within the Critias affirm the tropical nature of Plato’s Atlantis: the rain forests, the palm-trees, coconuts, rose woods, incense timber, pineapples, bananas, and so forth.. In fact, there’s additionally Plato’s mention of “this felicitous island under the sun”. This expression means, in historic parlance, the identical as the fashionable one of “equatorial”, that’s, “lying under the path of the sun in the skies”.
We should recall that Plato’s Atlantis flourished over the past glaciation, an epoch when international temperatures have been 5° to 10° C under the current. Then, most temperate and polar regions have been gelid, and completely coated by mile thick glaciers. So, nice civilizations ù necessarily based mostly on agriculture and cattle herding ù might only exist in tropical and equatorial regions corresponding to these of South India, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Central and South America, and North and Central Africa and the Near East.
The advocates of icy regions such as the North Sea, Antarctica, the Arctic and such, attraction to farfetched explanations like Pole Shift and prompt Continental Drift. However these events are wholly outdoors the realm of scientific geology, and shouldn’t be accepted until some factual evidence develops to help their declare. This proof ù and the idea that might again it up ù has also to elucidate the observed proven fact that glaciers akin to those of the Himalayas, of Greenland, of Antarctica, and so forth., have been on place for several tens of millions of years.
Likewise, equatorial forests resembling these of the Brazilian Amazonia, Africa and Indonesia have existed for tens of millions of years, steadily creating their monumental variety of species, in a delicate ecological equilibrium that could be very simply disrupted by any type of interference.
If the Pole had certainly shifted in current geological occasions, these forests would have been carried into the temperate or the polar regions of the world, alongside with Atlantis. The incontrovertible fact that these forests still exist, as they’ve existed for hundreds of thousands of years is proof enough that Pole Shifts never ocurred in occasions inside the Atlantean horizon. So, scientifically minded Atlantologists would better overlook about Pole Shift and Arctic or Antactic places for Atlantis, in the event that they certainly need to be taken critically by the tutorial group.
By the best way, there is a frequent confusion amongst a number of of the proponents of these obstreperous concepts. The earth has both a Magnetic Pole and a Celestial Pole. One is decided by its magnetism, and modifications fairly typically over geological occasions. But its shifting causes only very minor results on life and over the earth’s crust. The other one is dictated by earth’s spinning in relation to the celebs, and is actually invariant because of the Conservation of Earth’s Angular Momentum. In other words, the earth behaves as a kind of big gyroscope, and tends to keep fastened the course of its axis of rotation relative to the celebs, even if disturbed by considerable external influences.
Only a serious interference ù say, an enormous meteoritic collision of planetoidal measurement ù would trigger a serious shift of earth’s Celestial Pole. There are not any traces by any means that this has occurred in the final a number of million years, as we just stated. Moreover, the detailed observations of rock magnetism, of pallimnological analyses (pollen studies), of sedimentology (marine and lacustrine deposits) and of varve evaluation (lake degree yearly variations) depart little question at all that Pole Shift is certainly an phantasm of annoyed newbie Atlantologists which have despaired of ever discovering the lost continent of Atlantis anyplace on this real world of ours.
Plato provides several clues that the population of Atlantis was indeed large for the epoch in question. This reality alone guidelines out most regions of the traditional world reminiscent of Europe, North Asia and North America, which have been icy deserts in the Glacial Age. It additionally precludes North Africa and the Close to East, which have been mainly desertic in that epoch. We’re thus left with Central and South America, as well as with the Indies and Southeast Asia. Agriculture and Animal Domestication ù as contrasted with searching and gathering ù are the two primordial requisites for the development of city life and enormous, secure, civilized societies. Such giant communities have been rarity in the Previous World outdoors Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and the Far East. As for the Pleistocene epoch, they in all probability inexisted outdoors Atlantis correct.
The inhabitants of Atlantis could be estimated from the information disclosed by Plato. First of all, we have now the good extension of the nation, its fabled fertility, its two yearly crops and the immense community of irrigated tradition grounds. These have been, says Plato, about 600 x 400 km² . If we take the standard productiveness of Asian agriculture (rice), we get an yearly crop for the region of one thing like 10 to 20 million tons of rice, plus a corresponding plurality of different agricultural and pastoral products. Now, this is enough rice and produce to feed a population of 15 to 30 million individuals and still depart an ample surplus for exports. These are numbers that equate nicely with the ones truly noticed in the South Asian regions. So, we see that Plato was talking of actuality slightly than inventing anything. Perhaps, these crops have been partly exported for cash, affording the legendary riches of Atlantis. These exports of meals and the proverbial abundance of the Isles of the Blest (Atlantis) are commemorated in many myths and traditions which we remark elsewhere.
We will also estimate the population of Atlantis by the info of Plato regarding its armed forces. Plato provides their number in detail, which totals 1,160,000 soldiers. If we think about that one half of the population was female and that a few half of the males have been youngsters and that, moreover, most likely, not more than 1/four or so of the adult male population was truly conscripted, we provide you with a population of some 20 million individuals, in truthful settlement with the number estimated above. This quantity is large in accordance with the norm of the Previous World, notably once we contemplate that Atlantis flourished at an epoch that predated the Neolithic Age. Therefore, just as Plato states, no nation of the epoch might oppose the may of Atlantis. Such is especially the case of Athens, which might muster no more than 30 to 50 thousand men even at the peak of its energy, within the occasions of Pericles. However we must excuse the comprehensible patriotism of Plato who was, moreover, writing for a Greek audience.
We thus conclude that the large population of Atlantis uniquely points to the Far East ù the one place where such giant armies might be mustered in antiquity ù for the explanations pointed out above. Actually, the traditional Greeks, like different nations, marveled at the big measurement of the armies of the East, and notably that of Porus, the king of one of India’s realms conquered by Alexander, the Nice.
The Metropolis of Atlantis ù the holy capital of the vast empire of the identical identify ù had a Sacred Geometry that turned the paradigm and model for all different subsequent capitals. The geometry of the town is described intimately by Plato in addition to by other mythographers, symbolists and Atlantologists. Principally, it follows the mannequin of the so-called “Celtic Cross” or “Atlantean Cross”, a circle with crossing diameters . This sacred glyph is usually equated with the Solar or the Earth, which it came to symbolize in Astrology. However it is indeed the symbol of Atlantis which some Atlantologists reminiscent of Otto Muck call by the identify of “Cross of Atlantis”. In Egypt, as we stated above, this image was the hieroglyph of Paradise (Punt), in addition to of the Holy Eucharist (the Sacred Bread). This concept of “Primordial Sacrifice” is invariably associated with Atlantis and its doom.
On the middle of Atlantis’ capital lay the Holy Mountain (Mt. Atlas), which is not any aside from the sacred mountain of the Hindus (Mt. Meru). Mt. Meru is pyramidal shaped, and is indeed the archetype of all pyramids and pyramidal sacred mountains all over the place. These pyramids are often stepped, a geometry that parallels that of the mountains of Atlantis (the Indies), which have been stepped with terraces meant for agricultural purposes, as we already discussed further above. The fourfold division of the Cosmos characterised by the pyramidal form dates from Atlantean occasions. It’s found nearly all over the place in each the Previous and the New Worlds. We additionally find it in the Hindu four castes, of their pyramidal-shaped temples and, notably of their sacred mandalas. Certainly, mandalas akin to those of the Pure Land sort (Shveta Dvipa) painting Paradise as seen from above.
At the middle of the circle that represents the round canal surrounding Atlantis, we have now Mt. Meru represented as a stepped, sq. pyramid. Next we now have the triple wall with its four doors, one at every of the Four Cardinal Instructions. Around all of it, we’ve the round River Oceanus. This circular river is usually represented as the Ouroboros, the serpent that eats its own tail. The mandala is usually represented as a fiery lotus (the Golden Lotus), a shape that allegorizes the essence of the sacred syllable, OM MANI PADME HUM.
That mantra (prayer) subsumes the Conflagration that destroyed Atlantis, the a cataclysm of Hearth and Water we know as the Flood. So, the Sacred Geometry of Atlantis is certainly that of the mandalas and yantras we discover everywhere in the Far East, but notably in the Indies. More exactly, the Hindo-Buddhic mandalas characterize Atlantis, the true website of Paradise. This illustration consists of Mt. Atlas because the Holy Mountain of Paradise. This mountain is usually explicitly figured as a volcano, the fiery supply whose explosion truly destroyed Atlantis. Moreover, the Indian mandalas in query also characterize the Triple Wall of Atlantis (trimekhala). This Triple wall corresponds to the ringing ocean (or River Oceanus) around the sacred metropolis. Once more, the 4 gates (toranas) symbolize the four maritime straits which allowed the accessing of Atlantis from the four corners of the World.
The proven fact that we encounter the legend of Atlantis described so faithfully in Far Japanese mandalas that type the bottom of Hinduism and Buddhism proves the acute importance of the Atlantean fable within the Far Orient. However, the very fact is that, on hindsight, this mandalic figuration of Atlantis and its sacred geometry is discovered nearly all over the place. As we just noticed, it’s schematically figured in the Celtic Cross in addition to in monuments reminiscent of Stonehenge, which actually characterize the identical thing. So does the so-called Celtic Triple Wall, a schematic mandalic symbolism additionally discovered nearly all over the place on the planet.
Within the Americas, mandalas primarily similar to those of Hindu-Buddhists ù and truly carried out by the identical sacred method of sandpainting ù are discovered among the many Navajo and the Pueblo Indians of North America. An similar motif can also be found in Egypt, where the pyramidal complexes additionally represented the pyramid-shaped Holy Mountain.
A famous blue faience bowl found in Thebes and dated on the New Kingdom exhibits the pyramidal Holy Mountain, in plan view, as an island surrounded throughout by an encircling canal. At the 4 corners, the Four Cardinal Instructions, are the 4 Timber of Life shown as big lotus crops. The picture intently resembles the similar mandalic designs of the Mayas and Aztecs, which frequently embody the four Timber of Life. It also evokes the Hindu mandalas representing Mt. Meru, likewise seen from above, with its 4 subsidiary peaks, every with its own Tree of Life. This can be very unlikely that such similar designs and sophisticate paradisial symbolisms developed independently in all these distant, remoted regions of the world.
In additional disguised type ù but symbolizing exactly the identical ideas and the identical sacred geometry of Atlantis ù we also have comparable mandalic shapes representing the Celestial Jerusalem because the Middle of the World. The Holy Mountain is right here represented by Mt. Calvary (= Mt. Atlas or Meru) and the Cross (= Golden Lotus = Conflagration). Indeed, most capital cities corresponding to Washington DC, Belo Horizonte, Buenos Aires, Llassa, Harappa, Mecca, and so forth, are built in line with the Sacred Geometry of Atlantis, the actual source of all such archetypes. These cities all have as their central function, the obelisk on the middle of a round plaza, from which depart the 4 principal avenues alongside the Cardinal Directions. Anyone accustomed to the inherent which means of Hindu-Buddhic mandalas representing Mt. Meru because the Holy Mountain of Paradise could have no problem in realizing the Indian origin of this universal symbolism. The actual fact that it’s each common and very historic proves, past affordable doubt, that its worldwide diffusion can only have been carried out by the Atlanteans, in the dawn of occasions. How else?
BEYOND THE PILLARS OF HERCULES
Since Atlantis was situated in the Outer Ocean, it needs to be sought outdoors the Pillars of Hercules and the Strait of Gibraltar. Truly, there have been a number of Pillars of Hercules in antiquity created by the crafty Phoenician so as to confuse the navigants looking for the key path to Paradise, certainly the one of the worthwhile commerce with the Indies. Thus, we discover Pillars of Hercules ù typically confused with those of Atlas, the Pillar of Heaven ù not solely in Gibraltar, but in addition in Tartessos (Spain), Gadis (Spain), Gadir (Morocco), the Bosphoros (Black Sea), the Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabia) and even as far as the Indus Delta (India) and the Strait of Sunda (Indonesia).
In reality, it was the opening up of the Pillars of Hercules within the Strait of Sunda that created the legend of the Hero opening the Strait of Gibraltar as his topmost work. In reality this was carried out by the enormous explosion of the Krakatoa volcano, which was formerly Mt. Atlas, and lay between Java and Sumatra. When the Greeks moved from their primeval homeland in the Indies into their new one within the Mediterranean, they introduced alongside their myths, which they transplanted to the local geographical options. Hence, they created a brand new pair of Pillars of Hercules in Gibraltar, a brand new Atlantic Ocean, a new Backyard of the Hesperides, a new set of Islands of the Blest, and so on.
However, as we simply stated, the archetypal Pillars of Hercules really lay in Indonesia, the true website of Atlantis and of Eden. There’s where the entire story certainly began. However, whether or not one accepts this seminal discovery or not, this matters little, for Plato could be very particular on his disclosure that Atlantis in truth lay within the Outer Ocean and “beyond the Pillars of Hercules”. Truly, the well-known thinker makes use of the word hyper which is a Greek adverb which means “beyond”, with a way of “transposing”, “crossing”, “passing beyond”, “going further”, “yonder”, “past”, “over”, and so on..
So, the proposals that place Atlantis inside the Mediterranean Basin, although engaging and scientifically convincing, have to be discarded as specious. Such is the case of Thera (Santorini, close to Crete), of the Schott-el-Djerid (Libya), of the Bosphoros (Black Sea), of the Kertch Strait (idem), of Troy (Hissarlik, in Turkey) and so on.
The specs of Plato additional embody sure puns ù so appreciated of the ancients when treating issues associated to the key of the Mysteries ù which we now clarify. To start out with, the word hyper mentioned above additionally has the sense of “placed above as a substitute”. This is in all probability what Plato had in thoughts when he wrote that “the Atlanteans lived beyond the Pillars of Hercules” (hyper ten Heraklei Nyssai). We have now precisely the identical variety of pun in the Egyptian identify of the nation of Hau-nebut, the mysterious individuals of the shady “Islands of the Middle of the Great Green (Sea)”. These islands, which have been confused with Crete by many Egyptologists of benefit, are indeed these of Indonesia, the primordial Paradise of the Egyptians (Punt). The identify of Hau-nebut derives from a wordplay, in Sanskrit and Dravida, the primordial languages of the place, and means one thing like “the Islands (or Marshes) beyond the Pillars (of Hercules)”. In different phrases, these distant isles are exactly these of Atlantis, left behind when the good continent foundered way back.
This exegesis is perhaps thought-about farfetched, have been it not for the fact that Plato makes another comparable wordplay when he makes the priest of Sais affirm that Atlantis lay “in front of the straits which are by you called Pillars of Hercules”. What Plato is certainly hinting at is that the Pillars of Hercules in query are really these of Indonesia. For, there are not any lands or islands, sunken or not, “before Gibraltar” except the distant continent of North America. Nobody up to now, in trendy occasions, has dared to determine America to Atlantis. This reality is in distinction to the geography of Sunda Strait, certainly the traditional gateway to Atlantis.
Before it, an unlimited continent, now sunken, then lay as an unlimited expanse simply in front, precisely as Plato affirms. What the good thinker affirms of Atlantis was perfectly true of Indonesia through the Pleistocene Ice Age: There was an island [or continent] past the Pillars of Hercules… bigger than Libya and Asia Minor put collectively. This continent [of Atlantis] was the best way to different islands [Oceania]; and from these you may cross to the other continent [the Americas], which encompasses the true Ocean”.
Take a look at a great map of the world, and you’ll immediately understand that Plato spoke really, and that this area is the only one on the planet that matches his words adequately at the epoch in query, the Pleistocene Ice Age.
THE SARGASSOS SEA
One other topic of excessive importance within the texts of Plato on Atlantis is the matter of the “innavigable seas”. The thinker refers to those innavigable seas twice, one within the Critias and the other in the Timaeus. Within the Timaeus (25d), Plato mentions that when Atlantis sunk underseas, “the sea in the region became impassable and impenetrable because of the shoals of mud in it, caused by the subsidence of the island [of Atlantis]”. Plato repeats the identical story of the “impassable barrier of mud”, adding the detail that the island that sunk was certainly “greater than Libya and Asia put together”.
The Greeks had no identify for “continental” in the trendy sense. So, they used the phrase “island” for it, in the sense of an extension of land “isolated” by the seas. This utilization has prompted an everlasting problem for Atlantologists unfamiliar with this reality. Such is the rationale why they consider that Atlantis was an island fairly than a continent or a large piece of land of continental measurement remoted by the seas. However allow us to return to the matter of the “innavigable seas”. The Atlantic Ocean ù notably in the region outdoors the Strait of Gibraltar ù is actually very deep and really match for navigation. It apparently never posed a barrier for navigation and by no means introduced shoals of sand or mud both natural or because the end result of the sinking of any islands or continents there.
Hence, the oceanographers and different such specialist put the words of Plato to rest, and began in search of Atlantis elsewhere. In despair, some appealed to the Sargassos Seas, even at the moment a favorite theme of Atlantologists unaware of the current advances of Oceanography and of Mythological Exegesis. Certainly, the Sargassos Sea received its identify because of a mistake of Columbus. Columbus believed ù to the day of his demise ù that he was heading to the fabulous Indies. The Indies are the true website of the Eldorado and of Paradise, as any seasoned mariner nicely knows.
Hence, when the good explorer saw the Sargassos and flotsam of these seas, he instantly thought he had reached the Indies and its fabled Sargassos Seas that are certainly shallow and treacherous, simply as Plato claimed. Columbus, thus, wrongly baptized the seas he found with the hopeful but unfortunate identify that persists even in the present day. In actuality the true Sargassos Sea is the one the Hindus call Nalanala, which means the identical in Sanskrit. The Indian “Sea of Sargassos” is indeed the South China Sea. This sea is the one of the Indonesian region, which is not any aside from that of sunken Atlantis.
These seas are certainly shallow and full of reeds, sargassos, kelp, sandbars and coral reefs which render its navigation next to unimaginable, except to the extremely expert native pilots. What’s more, the Indonesian Seas are susceptible to a very peculiar occasion that’s indeed linked with the Atlantean cataclysm, just within the manner disclosed by Plato. When the Krakatoa volcano erupted explosively, back in 1883, it triggered one of the worst catastrophes ever recorded by males. The explosion originated an immense tidal wave that killed some 40,000 individuals instantly. Much more individuals died of famine, afterward. But probably the most curious function of its explosion was the liberation of immense floating banks of pumice stone. These endured for months, impeding navigation in the area and inflicting the dying of a big quantity of fishes and other marine organisms.
We will now perceive the true which means of Plato’s words. The “mud” in question is what Plato calls pelos, a Greek word which means “slime”, “clay”, “mud”, “muck”, “silt”, “ooze”, “sediment”. In different phrases, this “mud” is the pumice stone and the fly ash erupted by the enormous volcanic explosion ù probably one thousand occasions larger than the Krakatoa eruption of 1883. This mass coated the local seas with sediments and floating banks of volcanic ejecta. This impeded navigation for maybe centuries on finish. And still does, in a big method. Even immediately, these seas are, to a large extent, “innavigable” in a quite literal sense.
One of probably the most stringent clues on Plato’s Atlantis is that of a sunken continent “greater than Libya [North Africa] and Asia [Minor] put together”. In other phrases, Plato is speaking of something like 5 to 10 million sq. kilometers, concerning the measurement of Brazil or the USA. Now that is an enormous piece of real-estate, the dimensions of a continent, one that can’t be simply hidden away anyplace. The place can this continental-sized region be hiding even in the present day? Definitely not in the Atlantic Ocean, that has been scrutinized (for army purposes) right down to the metric scale by each the American and the Russian oceanographic ships. The similar is true of the Pacific and the Indian Oceans which have additionally been completely scanned. Therefore, an Atlantic Atlantis is an illusion that is to be discovered nowhere. So, is it really exists, it have to be sought elsewhere.
It is a particularly fascinating proven fact that Atlantologists ù and apparently the oceanographers as nicely ù have been minutiously looking the world’s ocean so completely that they forgot to seek in the actual spot the place Atlantis truly lies: the South China Sea. Strictly speaking, the South China Sea ù that of Indonesia, to make certain ù lies between the Pacific and the Indian Oceans. However it belongs to neither, and truly types their divide. That is the rationale why Indonesia was referred to as Ultima Thule (that is, “Ultimate Divide”) by the ancients. Thule was thought-about “the Divide of the World” in antiquity, as it separated the Previous from the New World. Because the world is spherical, and closes upon itelf, its extremes touch one another. So, the Extremes of the World (Orient and Occident) are certainly coterminous, and are also on the middle, the Middle of the World. This is how the paradox of Thule and the Pillars of Hercules being each the last word extremity of the world and, simultaneously, its Middle or Navel (Omphalos) ought to be finally understood.
It’s also thus that we must perceive the paradox of Paradise mendacity both at the Excessive Occident and the Extreme Orient. For, beyond the Orient (the Far East) lies the Far Occident, the New World. The entire factor is fairly apparent, a posteriori, once we pause to assume it over. The South China averages only about 50-60 meters in depth. It is, hence, extremely shallow and dangerously full of sandbars and coral reefs that render navigation there extremely perilous, simply as Plato affirmed.
Thus, it is potential to know precisely what happened based on Plato. Geology has current independently uncovered this sort of evidence as nicely. Through the Pleistocene Ice Age ù or, extra precisely, over the past Glacial Interval ù so much water was retained in the continental glaciers that sea degree was decrease by some 100-150 meters. Therefore, the shallow bottom of the South China Sea was utterly exposed, forming an enormous expanse of continental dimensions. It was this huge expanse that the Greeks referred to as Elysian Fields and the Egyptians named Sekhet Aaru (or “Field of Reeds”). This marshy nation is the one which later turned the primordial Sargasso Sea of the Indonesian region . So, whereas it is true that “continents cannot sink”, additionally it is true that sea degree can rise and flood complete continents, as it did within the South China Sea. It’s there that we should seek Atlantis and Eden, as well as the Elysian Fields and the Isles of the Blest. It was additionally there that when lay the felicitous Paradise, the very cradle of Mankind and of Civilization.
Atlantis has not been discovered earlier than as a result of it has been sought in the fallacious aspect of the world, perhaps as the end result of ethnocentric biases and white suprematist preconceptions. Once we take a look at a map of the region through the Ice Age, we will see that, certainly, the region shaped an enormous expanse of continental measurement, exactly as Plato and others postulated, and simply as we argued above.
Plato speaks of a sudden cataclysm, happening “in a single day and a night of sorrow”. In contrast, geologists unanimously affirm that the rise in sea degree was sluggish and gradual, and that the process lasted maybe a millennium, whereas the glaciers slowly melted away, their meltwaters regularly filling the seas. Can these two points of view, so reverse in scope be factually reconciled?
Truly each are considerably right, once they’re properly understood. What indeed occurred was that the enormous explosive eruption of the Krakatoa volcano triggered a colossal tsunami ù improperly referred to as “tidal wave” ù which swept over Atlantis’ lowlands and rivers valleys, killing and destroying all things in its wake. And this colossal explosion also prompted the top of the Pleistocene Ice Age. this occasion occurred because the enormous explosion coated the world’s glaciers with a advantageous layer of soot. This soot elevated their absorption of the solar’s heat, inflicting their consequent melting. The meltwaters of the continental glaciers flowed to the seas, rising their degree. The additional weight of that water created big stresses between the overloaded seabeds and the alleviated continental lands. These stresses, in flip, led to additional paroxysms of volcanism and earthquakes of a hitherto unprecedented scale.
Termination of the Pleistocene Ice Age was maybe kind of uniform alongside a whole millennium. Nevertheless it was punctuated from the start by a collection of cataclysms brought on by the volcanisms, the seaquakes and the earthquakes brought on by the very process in action. In other words the top of the Pleistocene was triggered by the very cataclysm that destroyed Atlantis. This triggering resulted in an extra castigation of the doomed region.
Already virtually absolutely destroyed by the conflagration and the enormous tsunami that we call the Flood, Atlantis saw its vast territory progressively disappear beneath the seas that stored rising progressively, whereas a collection of volcanic eruptions and big seaquakes marked the cadence of an extra collection of violent cataclysms. All this violence started precisely on the date given by Plato, that of 11,600 BP. This date is the actual one of the top of the Pleistocene in accordance with the geologic document. The horrible occasion additionally induced the in depth mass extinctions that attended the transition from the Pleistocene into the present geological period, the Holocene. Apparently enough, current studies of the geological document have proven that the top of the Pleistocene Ice Age (and that of the opposite geological eras as nicely) was attended by a paroxysmic improve of volcanic and seismic activity of unprecedented proportions.
The purpose for this is straightforward to know. Because the glaciers melted away, their meltwaters flowed into the ocean, inflicting sea degree to rise by 100-150 meters. The alleviated continental plates rose isostatically (isostatic rebound), while the overburdened seabottoms, subjected to the super strain of the extra water, tended to sink even additional. This strain brought on large stresses in the crust of the earth, which cracked and quaked at the weak spots, engendering the paroxysm in query.
The process is self-sustaining, as soon as began, as a result of constructive feedback, for the increased volcanism and seismic exercise further accelerates glacier melting, as described above.
We contemplate megalithic constructions – notably the ones made of hewn stones akin to those of Egypt and Peru – to be the very “signature” of the Atlanteans. The purpose is straightforward to see. So as to work onerous stones corresponding to granite and basalt, nothing brief of metal or, on the very minimal, bronze, will ever do. Stone ù whilst onerous as dolerite and granite ù soon chip and crack, turning into unusable. Archaeologists usually claim that the Egyptians and the Peruvian Indians who constructed the colossal buildings we will observe even immediately in England (Stonehenge), in Giza (the Nice Pyramid) and in Peru and Bolivia (Tiahuanaco) did it with tools normal from copper or from stones akin to dolerite. This reality exhibits that they really never attempted to do it in actuality or even to theoretically show how this can be accomplished in apply. The cause for that is easy to see, because the feat is totally unimaginable in reality.
The true secret of megalithic development is the possession of steel and bronze tools and of the metallurgical methods to supply them. This know-how existed within the Far East a number of millennia before the acknowledged date of their introduction within the West. It is clear that this system came from elsewhere, and was certainly practiced by foreigners or invaders that stored such secrets for themselves. Such was exactly the case in both Egypt and Peru, the 2 biggest early exponents of megalithic know-how outdoors the Far East. Incan and Egyptian traditions each inform how personages associated with the construction of megaliths and pyramids got here from the distant Orient, bringing alongside their metal weapons. These they later smithed into the instruments they used so as to erect their magnificent megalithic constructions.
In Egypt, a metal device was discovered inside the Great Pyramid by Cel. Vyse, who swore in writing that it might in no case be intrusive and, therefore, of later date. But the Nice Pyramid was inbuilt 2,600 BC, virtually 2 millennia earlier than iron was officially introduced in Egypt. Furthermore, the builders (Free-Masons?) to whom such megalithic constructions are ascribed ù personages comparable to Khufu, Imhotep and Thoth ù are unanimously stated to have come from the Orient, from the location of Paradise (Punt). Punt (Indonesia)is precisely the location of the Paradise we consider to be the identical as Atlantis.
The similar thing additionally happened in Peru. There the Incas attributed the development of Tiahuanaco’s magnificent pyramids and precision megalithic buildings to the Chimus (or Chams), whom they described as white, blond, blue-eyed giants. This is the standard phenotype of the Atlanteans all over the place. These Indians also declare that, when these invaders got here from past the Ocean (Pacific), they introduced along the iron and the bronze with which they original their instruments and weapons. Even the identify the Peruvians used for metal (quillay) is of Dravidian derivation, and clearly came from the Far Orient. Once we turn to locations similar to Greece (legends on the development of Troy); to England (Stonehenge), France (Carnac) and the Far East itself (Angkor, Java, South India) we all the time discover the legends claiming that these monuments have been built by blond giants and dark dwarfs working collectively and using magical means so as to erect their megaliths. (Nagas) and dwarfs (Kinnaras, or what?
How else can we fairly clarify otherwise the mystery of the development of the spectacular monuments such as the Nice Pyramid, Zozer’s pyramidal complicated, the megaliths of Tiahuanaco and even the rougher constructions of France (Carnac) and England (Stonehenge)? These have been all constructed of gigantic hard-stones formed to exacting tolerances by means of a way that we are barely capable of reproduce immediately. Furthermore, how but by way of Atlantis can we explain the fact that all such monuments have been built to serve a standard objective as a reproduction of Atlantis? Apart from, why are all of them ascribed to semi-divine personages of Atlantean origin who used superior, seemingly magical methods for the aim?
Plato relates in detail how Atlantis had an immense military for the time, totaling about 1.2 million armed males. This huge army had a sum of 10,000 chariots, something portentous for the epoch. Now, struggle chariots require horses, which is to say that the horse was first domesticated in Atlantis some 12 thousand years in the past or much more.
This reality apparently rules out the Americas from our listing, as they did not posses the animal besides beneath non-conformal sizes and dates. The similar conclusion additionally applies to Europe and the Near East. There, the horse was only launched far later by approach of Egypt and the Hyksos, at about 1,670 AC or so.
All in all, it appears that evidently if Plato’s disclosures on the intensive use of domesticated horses in Atlantis is indeed true, only an Oriental location for the Lost Continent is certainly consonant with actual reality. The origin and the domestication of the horse is wrapped in thriller, as is often the case with all things Atlantean. The magnificent animal apparently arose in Asia at about 38 million years in the past. From there it later unfold to the Americas, and became extinct there afterwards, however not before returning to Eurasia.
Specialists consider that the horse was domesticated in Central Asia at concerning the third millennium BC. From there, by way of Egypt and the Hyksos, the horse’s use unfold to Europe and the Close to East and, perhaps, from this, again to the Far Orient, where its use had been completely lost and forgotten. Specialists additionally usually agree that the domestic horse doesn’t derive from American stocks but, as an alternative from Asian ones. Therefore, the very archaeology of the horse factors to Asia because the land of origin of the domesticated horse. This means a connection between Atlantis and the Orient if Plato is true in his assertion that the domestic horse originated in Atlantis far earlier than the specialists would have it.
Plato additionally tells how the royal capital metropolis of Atlantis had in depth hippodromes for horse racing. Plato might be alluding to chariot racing, though it isn’t inconceivable that there were also mounted contests. The giant width of the racing course (200 meters) suggests chariot contests, a sport highly cherished in antiquity. The Horse Sacrifice of the Hindus (Ashvamedha) is certainly a ritual enactment of the demise of Paradise (Atlantis). The horse is there commemorated because the animal that represents the Cosmos (Paradise). So, this strange Vedic ritual once more establishes a link with Atlantis as the homeland of the domesticated horse, one of the finest of all conquests of man. The legend of the Trojan Horse additionally brings to thoughts a connection between Atlantis and horses, for the true Troy is not any aside from Atlantis. Because the horse and combat chariots did not exist the Near East before their introduction by the Hyksos, we will ensure that Schliemann’s Troy shouldn’t be the actual one, as archaeologists presently consider.
The warfare chariots described intimately by Plato are of the Hindu sort fairly than of the one used all through the ancient Near East. The struggle chariots of Atlantis, like the ones of India, had two charioteers and a pair of draft horses. One of the riders drove, whereas the opposite charioteer shot arrows at the enemies with the assistance of his bow. The celebrated passage of the Bhagavad Gita on Krishna and Arjuna as the charioteers of victory describes in detail the classical battles fought in the course of the Bronze Age and, perhaps, in Atlantis as properly. We can’t end this part without repeating that, from all the presents man has inherited from Atlantis, the domesticated horse was definitely one of the noblest of all. Though classically used in combats and disputes of all types, the horse additionally served as a way of transportation, of drafting masses and implements and, above all, for driving, alongside all of the millennia that preceded the epoch-making invention of the car.
When one admires horses on the unfastened, one is often impressed with the good velocity and the gracefulness of the excellent animal. However one can also be struck with the vast extensions that these magnificent creatures require both for roaming and for feeding. One can also be led to dream of paradisial grassy plains of monumental extension, abounding in fats grass and in water sources flashing beneath the warm sunlight of the tropical regions. What different plains are as match as the Elysian Plains for the birthplace of the horse and for that of the clever ancestors who first dreamed of turning the horse in an everyday companion and pal? The very fact that the ancestor of the domesticated horse can’t be traced with security suggests a misplaced website of origin just like the one of Atlantis. Atlantis, we recall, was the very website of the Elysian Plains, the immense grassy pampas the place the horse is almost definitely to have originated.
Plato could be very particular on the presence of elephants in Atlantis. In his Critias, the thinker writes: “There were a great number of elephants in the island, for there was ample provision of food for all sorts of animals… including for the animal which is the largest and the most voracious of all.” The query of elephants is very important, for it sheds quite a bit of mild on the difficulty of Atlantis. The date given by Plato for the top of Atlantis ù that of 11,600 BP ù is a divisor of waters. It corresponds precisely with that of the drastic end of the Pleistocene. That is the epoch when the mammoth and the mastodon turned extinct throughout the world, together with a myriad species of other crops and animals.
Plato would definitely call these two elephantoids by the identify of “elephant”, an animal they intently resemble in both shape and measurement. So, if we think about the date given by Plato to be actual, we might place Atlantis all over the place these great mammals existed. In contrast, if we settle for later dates, as do the proponents of an American or a Theran Atlantis, we must disregard the mammoth and the mastodon, for they have been already extinct. To make certain, there are some later RC dates for the mammoth in North America, properly after the top of the Pleistocene. But these must be thought-about pending affirmation, as they seem to be spurious, pehaps as the outcome of contamination by extraneous materials. In different phrases, elephants proper are solely present in Africa and in South Asia. So, the exigency of their presence by Plato excludes the Americas and the Mediterranean Basin, with the exception of North African nations.
The elephant existed in North Africa, and was utilized by Hannibal of Carthage, in his struggle towards Rome. Some historic traditions report the presence of wild elephants in Syria, where it was ritually hunted by kings and pharaohs. But these traditions in all probability check with the pristine “Syria”, the Island of the Sun (Surya, in Sanskrit), which is not any aside from Atlantis itelf. Nevertheless, the unlikely presence of the elephant in historic Palestine would hardly invalidate any of our conclusions, for this semi-desertic region of the globe can hardly have been the actual website of luscious, tropical Atlantis.
The fantastic creature additionally exists in the African savannas in relatively nice numbers. However it is within the Indies ù that’s, in India, Indonesia and the Malay Peninsula ù that the elephant certainly thrives. There, the elephant has been domesticated as a beast each of burden and warfare use since remotest antiquity, as attested within the steatite seals of the Indus Valley Civilization. The mammoth and the mastodon ù in distinction to the elephant ù have been nicely adapted to cold climate, and ranged farther north, into the icy areas of Pleistocenic North America, Europe, and North Asia. So, if we embrace these creatures underneath the “elephants” mentioned by Plato, we should also embrace the regions simply mentioned as potential websites for Atlantis. However we should always understand that this inclusion routinely requires that the date for Atlantis in these places have to be the one given by Plato for its demise, for these animals turned extinct after the top of the Pleistocene Ice Age, some 11,600 years in the past, the very date of Atlantis’ foundering.
Turning to other factors. As a matter of reality, the elephant was the totemic deity of the Nagas (or Aryans) of India. The Nagas (or Titans) have been the individuals so intently related with Atlantis and Atlantean legends there and elsewhere. Indeed, the word naga means both “elephant” and “serpent” (or “dragon”) in Sanskrit. Such “dragons” or “elephants” are universally held to be the same as the Atlantean Sons of God, the engenderers of royal dynasties in all places. Such was the case, as an example, of Alexander, the Great, of Buddha (the Elephant = a Naga), and of Arthur Pendragon (“Son of the Dragon”). Apparently enough, the Mayas of Mexico worshipped the elephant as a totemic deity, and endlessly reproduced the animal’s features of their temples and palaces. Mayan temples are often adorned with elephantine trunks in the so-called “elephant trunk” decorations. These are stated to reproduce the elephant-faced god referred to as Chaac. Chaac appears to be the exact counterpart of his Hindu alias, Ganesha, likewise elephant-headed. Nobody with an open thoughts can ever deny that the Mayan god Chaac ù regionally referred to as Narigon (“Big Nose”) ù is anything aside from an elephant god of the sort the Hindus call Naga (a Sanskrit word which means both “Elephant and “Serpent” or “Dragon”).
The Nagas characterize the anguipedal Titans and, particularly, the serpent (or elephant = Naga) god Shesha. Shesha is the true archetype of Atlas because the Pillar of the World. Comparable elephantine temple decoration abound even right now in the Indies. There the elephant (or serpent) god is, just as in Mayan America, endlessly reproduced within the type of pillars supporting the temples’ roofings which represents the skies. In Incan Peru we also had the same factor. There too, the Serpent Amaru ù the precise counterpart of Shesha ù was held to help the world. Its twin was the Inti Fowl, a kind of kite or falcon, additionally the archenemy of serpents. Both animals figured in the royal coat-of-arms, simply as they did in Mexico. The elephant or serpent gods of the Incas, the Mayas and the Hindus have a twin in the eagle god, referred to as Garuda or Nagari (“Enemy of the Nagas”) within the Indies.
In Mexico, the duel of the Eagle and the Serpent has been adopted as the national emblem of Mexico, as it was central to Mayan faith. The motif is equally famous within the Indies, where Garuda is the Eagle, and the Nagas are the Serpents or Dragons. Therefore, both the Mayas obtained their notion of elephant gods from India, or we’ve to root their formidable civilization in ante-Diluvian, Pleistocenic occasions. Each views are equally fascinating. They each spell Atlantis, for Pleistocenic civilizations or intimate trans-Pacific contacts between the Far East and the Americas both collide front on with “official” views of human prehistory.
Whereas the elephant or the extinct mammoths and mastodons might have existed in a now sunken Atlantic island, there isn’t a confirmatory evidence for this, and the matter is pending. Scandinavia and Celtiberia present sure proof of the presence of the mammoths, however none in any respect of its domestication or of any nice Pleistocenic civilization that could be equated with Atlantis.
No traces of elephants have ever been found on Thera or Crete, besides perhaps for certain imported ivory objects. The similar holds for Antarctica. Based on the archaeological issues discussed above we marked our Guidelines as follows: Constructive (V): Plato, the Indies, North Africa, Libya and African Northwest. Uncertain (?): Sunken Atlantic Island, Scandinavia (and North Sea), Celtiberia. Unfavorable (X): Thera (Crete) and Antarctica, the place no traces of elephants or mammoths have ever been discovered.
A CATACLYSMIC FLOOD
Few details are as properly recorded in geology as the Common Flood. It’s enough to learn Buffon, Cuvier, Buckland, and different such pre-Darwinian Catastrophists to confirm how ample the proof of a common cataclysm is in all places. The trendy Catastrophists – the geologists which have the center to disagree with the official Uniformitarian doctrines of Darwin and Lyell – have even more compelling proof on this universal cataclysm. Indeed the top of the Pleistocene 11,600 years in the past was attended by terrible mass extinctions and cataclysms the world over. The date is precisely that given by Plato. To consider that this coincidence is only random borders the irrational.
Some 70% of all species of great mammals and an entire collection of lesser ones turned extinct. Even the Neanderthals and the Cro-Magnons seem to have perished in that cataclysm, as they turned extinct at or about that horrible date. However, it’s in North America that the evidence of an immense Flood cataclysm is probably the most evident. Many geologists have acknowledged that geological features such because the scablands of the Northwestern United States, that the drumlins of the northwestern plains of Canada and that the whales of the region of the Nice Lakes, in the very coronary heart of the North American continent, are the end result of a big flood of continental scale. Some geologists, unfamiliar with the small print of the issue, ascribe this continental flooding to a big lake shaped by the meltwaters of the Pleistocenic glaciers once they receded on the finish of that geological age. However specialists corresponding to Dr. Warren Hunt and others have shown the sensible impossibility that the enormous amounts of glacier meltwaters might have been dammed by ice dikes, for this material lacks both the power and the adhesivity to withhold so much water.
The only potential rationalization that is sensible is that of a sudden maritime invasion brought on by an enormous tsunami of international proportions, as some geologists at the moment are starting to understand. The whole lot factors to the fact that this big wave got here in from the Pacific Ocean by way of the north, across the Arctic Ocean. It handed over Alaska and northwestern Siberia the place it left the proof of the frozen mammoths and the immense quantities of “muck” shaped by diluvial particles similar to whales, marine organisms, lifeless fishes, splintered timber and lots of different such data.
Then, it created ù each in its wake and in the subsequent gradual withdrawal of its waters ù the drumlins and the scablands we presently observe in that vast region of the world. As considerations the legends of the Common Flood. The reminiscences of the Flood are the precise imprint left by the cataclysmic end of the Ice Age on the minds of men. There are few issues so properly attested in myths and traditions as the cataclysm of the Flood and the destruction of Paradise it prompted in the dawn of occasions. Its tradition is as common as is the geological proof for itself. In fact, the actual accounts differ from place to put for, evidently, the actual experiences and visions of the cataclysm additionally changed from place to put.
Some of these relations inform of maritime invasions by the enormous tsunami alongside the Pacific Coasts, rains and tempests additional away, sky darkening all over the place. Additionally they converse of earthquakes and volcanic conflagrations close to the epicenter of the cataclysm, in Indonesia and Southeast Asia, and so forth. An objective evaluation of all these many descriptions of the Flood and the destruction of Paradise by the agency of Hearth and Water reveals that the cataclysm in question can only have been the drastic ending of the Pleistocene Ice Age.
Again, an unbiased analysis discloses the truth that this cataclysm was brought on by a huge volcanic explosion that triggered a kind of chain reaction. the event in query passed off exactly on the date said by Plato for the demise of Atlantis, that of 11,600 BP. To consider that these are sheer coincidences or, contrariwise, that the Flood was a petty native cataclysm wildly exaggerated by the traditional “primitives” is a view that can’t be held anymore besides by the hardiest of diehards. The reality of Catastrophism in Geology has now been established beyond affordable doubt by all types of factual proof.
So, the tenets of Uniformitarianism of Darwin and Lyell can’t fairly be adhered to any longer by any smart individual on a par with the fashionable developments of Geology and Evolutionism.
TRADE BETWEEN ATLANTIS AND THE REST OF THE WORLD
Plato affirms that one of the primary options of Atlantis was the nature and intensity of its naval commerce with even probably the most distant nations of the world. The capital of the Atlantean empire was crossed by maritime canals which allowed the ingress of the most important ships and allowed their docking in its port amenities. In the Critias (114 d) Plato asserts: “Because of the greatness of their empire, many things were brought to them [the Atlanteans] from foreign countries, though their land itself provided most of what was required for them for the uses of life…” And Plato adds further under (Critias117 c) that: “The canals and the largest harbors [of the capital city] were full of ships and merchants corning from all parts of the world who, from their large numbers, kept a multitudinous rumor of human voices and a din and clatter of all sorts both night and day.”
Many authorities have famous the close resemblance of Plato’s Atlantis and Homer’s Phaeacia, the distant golden realm visited by Odysseus (Ulysses) in his wanderings in the Outer Ocean. Homer’s Phaeacia (or Scheria, its other identify) indubitably lay in the Indian Ocean, which is referred to by Homer as “the winy red ocean”. This and other such epithets applied solely to the Indian Ocean, which was referred to as Erythraean (“Red One”) by the Greeks. This individuals thought-about the Erythraean because the japanese extension of the Atlantic Ocean, and deemed it the veritable Ocean of the Atlanteans, as we argue elesewhere.
The description of Phaeacia by Homer (Od. VII: 80) with its lofty walls, spacious harbors, seaworthy ships and golden palaces intently parallels the ones of Atlantis as described by Plato. Homer mentions how the hero, spellbound by the magnificence of the royal palace, lingered for a long time earlier than it, not daring to enter its golden threshold. In Homer’s own words, “the splendor of the palace was like that of the sun and the moon”. Homer also affirms that the Phaeacians “are a sea-faring nation, and sail all seas by the grace of Poseidon, in ships fleet like thought or as a bird in the air”. Truly, the very identify of Scheria ù stated to derive from the Phoenician phrase schera, which means “market-place”. ù is telltale.
It exhibits that Homer’s fabulous golden realm was, like its Atlantean counterpart, the emporium of an enormous community of worldwide naval commerce. The identify of Scheria can be approached to the Greek phrase schedia which means “ships” or, relatively, “fleet ships”, like those of Atlantis.
Certainly, Homer likens Phaeacia to a huge ship which was was stone and sunken by Poseidon, as a punishment for his or her disobedience in serving to Ulysses. Coincidentally sufficient, Poseidon, the good god of the Phaeacians, can also be the founder and supreme god of the Atlanteans, in accordance with Plato. Ship-like Phaeacia intently evokes the primordial Tyre of Ezequiel (ch. 26-28) which was likened to a ship by the prophet. Ezekiel’s “Tyre” later turned “a place to spread fishing nets upon” after it was become stone and sunk underseas.
Ezequiel describes this primordial Tyre as a “renowned city, inhabited by a seafaring nation of merchants, strong in the middle of the seas”. The great prophet additionally places this famous city among the many different “islands of the Outer Ocean” fairly than in Mediterranean Basin. Once we pause to assume it over, we see that this primordial “Tyre” is indubitably the same as Homer’s Phaeacia and as Plato’s Atlantis. It was the mannequin of the other Tyre in Lebanon, based by the Phoenicians at about 1,500BC, after they faraway from their primordial homeland beyond the ocean (Indian).
Ezequiel tells how Tyre and the other islands “trembled in day of thy departure… in the midst of the waters”. Ezekiel’s “Tyre” can also be likened to “Eden, the Garden of the Lord”. It is sited, by the prophet, “in the middle of the seas” among the other islands of the Outer Ocean, as we stated above. Ezekiel’s “Tyre” was, like Plato’s Atlantis, “full of a multitude of merchants” who traded in all types of items akin to metals, gems, valuable stuff and spices of their “ships of Tarshish”. Tarshish was, as Ezequiel and others affirm, the provider of metals corresponding to silver, gold, iron, tin, copper and bronze to the traditional nations of the Bronze Age. There can little doubt that Tarshish and, hence, the other isles of the ocean corresponding to Ezekiel’s “Tyre”, lay in the Indian Ocean.
In reality, the Phoenician sailors of King Solomon and of Hiram of Tyre reached these abroad area from the port of Ezion-Geber, within the Pink Sea. Although the mysterious Tarshish ù the provider of mineral ores and gems ù has been typically confused with the Spanish Tartessos, the very fact is that the Spanish Tartessos was, like the Lebanese Tyre, merely a reproduction of their pristine archetypes within the islands of Indonesia. The pristine commerce with the Indies was maybe the most effective stored secret of the ancients.
The naval route to this distant supplier of metals, spices and other valuable stuff reminiscent of perfumes, incenses, medicine of all types, dyes, ivory, amber, tissues, paper, and so forth.was rigorously concealed from the potential rivals This commerce dates back from the remotest antiquity, and is attested not only in the detailed annals of the Egyptians, the Chinese and the Mesopotamians. Additionally it is recorded in the myths and traditions of the Bible (as in Ezekiel and in Revelation), of the Greeks (the Odyssey, the Argonautica, and so on.) and, indeed, of most nations of antiquity. The “isles of the sea” of Ezekiel are not any aside from the “Atlantic Islands” that have been invariably reproduced in the Medieval maps of the world as “newly discovered” (insulae de novo repertae). These mysterious islands have been certainly these of Indonesia, the opposite “India” from which the spices and the metals have been imported in antiquity.
The naval route to those distant islands have been ardently sought out by all mariners right down to the occasions of the good navigants comparable to Columbus, Vasco da Gama, Magellan and Cabral. They have been the islands of the East Indies so vainly soght by all mariners right down to the occasions of these discoverers, who lastly cleared the riddle of their true location and whereabouts. The historic sagas of navigant heroes similar to Ulysses, the Argonauts, Gilgamesh, and the Shipwrecked Egyptian Sailor, or the peripluses of pseudo-historical sailors similar to Hanno, Himilco, Pytheas of Marseilles and Scylax of Caryanda, are no more than coded verbal maps of the path to the fabulous Indies, as we argue in detail elsewhere. In different phrases, there was only one region in antiquity that corresponded to Plato’s description of the fabulously wealthy Atlantis as a nation of worldwide navigants and suppliers of all types of valuable merchandise.
That nation was India and, more exactly, the 2 Indies, India and Indonesia. Right down to trendy occasions, as all through all antiquity, the Indies have been the supply of valuable merchandises reminiscent of the ones mentioned above. These merchadizes have been all Indian exclusivities in antiquity. So, the fact that they are linked to Atlantis by Plato, and to Ophir (or Tarshish or Eden or “Tyre”) in the Bible, is a stringent hint of the elemental id of all these places with the fabulous East Indies. Solely later have been various sources of supply of the crucial tin (the British Cassiterides), of amber (the Baltic) and of “spices” (the Americas) discovered to switch the fabulous Indies, the true successors of the legendary Atlantis. The Phoenician and other historic navigants like the Carthaginians, the Minoan Cretans and the Etruscans have been the youngsters of Atlantis. They have been the survivors of the Atlantean cataclysm who stored on the ancient naval commerce that made each the glory and the immense wealth of the luciferine empires.
The drawback of the supplying of tin for the manufacture of the big amount of bronze that characterised the Bronze Age is way from settled. Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin, with about 10% of the latter metallic, which is indeed fairly rare and costly. The tin mines of Kestel and Goltepe within the Taurus Mts. of Turkey in reality date from the Bronze Age. But they are removed from a adequate supply, and fell far shorter than the hopeful expectations of the archaeologists, who noticed in them the potential answer of the ancient riddle of the source of tin in antiquity.
The Spanish Tartessos, so typically confused with the legendary Tarshish ù that was the ancient provider of tin in accordance with the Bible ù never produced a single pound of the essential metallic in antiquity. As a matter of reality, the primeval Tarshish whence tin got here in antiquity lay abroad, in the Indian Ocean. Tartessos, its Spanish duplicate, was merely an artifice of the clever Phoenicians in an effort to divert the potential rivals from the true supply of the valuable metallic (see item 15 above). Likewise, the Cassiterides ù the legendary “islands of tin” (kassiteros, in Greek) of Cornwall (England) ù was solely an alternate, far later source of supply of tin.
The Cornwalian mines have been solely discovered and activated by the Phoenicians at concerning the VI century BC. That is far too late for the Bronze Age, which ended at about 1,000 BC or so. Herodotus (fl. 430 BC) had vaguely heard of the Cassiterides, which he confused with Tartessos. Later writers applied the identify to some smallish islands off the coast of Spain or to the northeast coast of Spain, in the area of Gades. But neither of these proved to be the actual supply of tin, and the Greco-Roman writers were not capable of determine the true location of the fabulous Cassiterides.
The Cassiterides retained their legendary existence even after the source of tin in Cornwall was positively identified. The little that was recognized for certain of the Cassiterides was that they lay “outside the Pillars of Hercules”, precisely as was the case of Atlantis. The Greek identify of tin, kassiteros, derives from the Dravida and Sanskrit kacita, which means “white metal”. The proven fact that the European identify of tin is Hindu demonstrates beyond affordable doubt the the Indian origin and provenience of the valuable white metallic.
Avienus makes a confused description of the places of the Cassiterides in his Ora Maritima (96f.). He places these mysterious isles ù which he identifies with Gades and Tartessos, in addition to the Oestrymnid Islands ù near the Pillars of Hercules and the Sargasso Sea. Each these places are intimately related with the location of Atlantis.
As a matter of reality, the word oestrum, from which the Tin Islands derive their identify, means “fury”, “hallucination”. And this etym (etymon, etymology) is merely the translation into Greek of the identify of the Moluccas, which means the same factor in Dravida (malukku). Moluccas was the identify the ancient mariners gave to the islands of Indonesia, because of the inebriating spices and hallucinogens produced there. These medicine the Phoenicians, the Etruscans and the Minoans delivered to the Occident, along with the metals and other comparable exclusivities of the fabulous Indian commerce. It has been just lately decided, by way of detailed chemical analyses of several Egyptian mummies, that the drug visitors in antiquity was quite widespread. It encompassed the Americas (coca, tobacco), the Indies (cannabis and opium) and the Near East (opium and heroine).
These results have been obtained by a German workforce of specialists, and are fairly unassailable. We all know how meticulous and competent the Germans are at this sort of research. these results are so unbelievable that they have been questioned. However they might not be refuted at all and, therefore, have to be accepted as actual till someone is able to refute them. Avienus also identifies the Cassiterides with the location of Mt. Cassius (or Argentarius). The silvery colour of this mountain derives, in line with him, from it being coated with tin, so typically confused with silver by the ancients.
The poet also makes these islands the location of the Pillars of Hercules and of the abode of the enormous Geryon. Geryon was, as we all know, the three-bodied big killed by the Hero in his tenth labor. Now, Geryon inhabited the island of Erytheia, which was situated within the Orient, past the ocean (Indian) and the Pillars of Hercules, at the very website of Atlantis. As we show elsewhere, these legendary islands, so wealthy in gold, silver and tin, have been the same as the ones the Greek referred to as by names similar to Argyre (“Silvery Islands”) or Chryse (“Golden Islands”). These islands have been additionally referred to as Chryse Chersonesos (“Peninsula of Gold”) or Cassia Chersonesos (“Peninsula of Tin”). For, in antiquity, islands and peninsulas (“near islands”) have been vaguely confused.
This golden peninsula and the close by islands in question have been these of present day Indonesia. Indonesia is, even immediately, the best provider of tin and related metals, simply because it was in remotest antiquity. The Hindus referred to as these fabled islands by names similar to Saka-dvipa (“White Islands”) or Suvarna-dvipa (“Golden Islands”) because of the metals (gold and tin, the white metallic) they produced. Actually, Saka-dvipa is described in the Puranas as extremely rich in valuable metals and gems. Its inhabitants have been whites just like the Pious Ethiopians of Indonesia-Atlantis, as described by Pliny and Solinus and a number of other different Classical authors. Saka-dvipa can also be characterized by having “a golden lofty mountain whence the clouds arise that bring the rains” and one other one “that produces all the herbs and medicinal drugs”.
Now, the Golden Mountain is Mt. Meru (or Sumeru) and the opposite one is the Silvery Mountain (or Kumeru) which Avienus calls Mt. Argentarius (or Cassius). In Sanskrit, the phrase Saka means each “white” (or “white metal”) and “medicinal drug”, simply as in the identify of the Moluccas. So, we see how the confusion of the two names originally arose.
Plato also relates the fact that Atlantis was immensely rich in metals and gems, which the Atlanteans used lavishly in the decoration of their temples and walls. In one passage of his Critias (114 d) the Greek thinker writes that: “Their island itself produced most of what was required by them for the uses of life. In the first place they dug out of the earth whatever [metals and gemstones] that are to be found there, solid or fusible. They also produced that which is now only a name, orichalcum, but which was then a reality that was dug out of the earth in many parts of the continent, and which was, in those days, more precious than any other metal other than gold.”
In one other passage (Critias116b) Plato tells how the triple partitions of Atlantis have been clad one with bronze the other with tin and the internal one, which encompassed the citadel “flashed with the red light of orichalc”. The true nature of orichalc has been endlessly debated by specialists of all types since antiquity. The flashy golden metallic can only be brass, an alloy of copper and zinc of very troublesome synthesis whose know-how would solely be mastered again in trendy occasions.
The lavish use of metals by the Atlanteans extended to the gold and the silver used with abundance in their temples and palaces. Alexander, in his fabled conquest of the Indies, had the opportunity of seeing in individual the multitude of golden pillars fairly like the ones the kings of Atlantis used to inscribe their legal guidelines and edits. Proclus, a Neo-Platonic that commented Plato’s works, tells how Crantor, another Neo-Platonic, might nonetheless see, in Egypt, the golden pillar that the clergymen of Sais showed to the vacationers, and which was inscribed with scripts telling the story of the lost continent. Proclus also affirms that Atlantis’ remains shaped an archipelago within the Outer Ocean, “beyond the Pillars of Hercules”. In short, many traditions concur in the truth that Atlantis was immensely wealthy in all types of metals and minerals akin to gems, and notably in tin, gold and silver, which it furnished to all nations of the ancient world.
Traditions reminiscent of those of Solomon’s fabulous mines in Ophir, or of heroes akin to Ulysses and the Argonauts looking for the fabled golden realms of Phaeacia and Aiaia are not more than dim recollections of Atlantis, distorted and magnified to unimaginable limits by the traditional bards. So are the ancient traditions such as the bronzy partitions of Hades, the golden and silvery mountains of the Far Orient, and the Eldorado of the Conquistadors, who mistook the Americas for the Indies, the true website of Atlantis-Eden.
Some of these golden realms are sunken cities like the flashy submarine realm of Poseidon (Aigaia), or the likewise excellent golden palace of Triton, in the backside of the Ocean. Others have been explicitly submerged by the Flood, as was the case of golden Troy and its bronzy partitions or the one of Atlantis itself. Lastly, most have been remote islands of the Far East, situated past the Pillars of Hercules. Such was the case of the rosy Erytheia of Geryon and of the mysterious islands talked about by Proclus, who equated them with the fabled remains of Atlantis. In every case it is potential to point out ù as we do elsewhere ù that each one these half-sunken realms became islands are certainly the same as these of Indonesia. More exactly additionally they embrace the Moluccas (or Spice Islands or Golden Islands), in addition to the nearby lands of Malasia (South and Southeast Asia). These forlorn islands are, moreover, the same as the Elysium or Isles of the Blest, the paradisial Hades where our lifeless Atlantean ancestors spend their everlasting life in joyful banquets, video games, dances, hunts and fishings. This dismal Paradise was but the same the Egyptians referred to as Punt (or Amenti or Duat, and so on.).
The only exhausting evidence given by Plato of a superior know-how utilized by the Atlanteans consists within the use of orichalc, the mysterious metallic which “flashed like fire” and which they used to clad the partitions of their citadel. As we adduced above orichalc ù or aurichalcum, that’s “golden copper”, as Pliny wrote ù is brass, an alloy of copper and zinc of a phenomenal golden color and superior mechanical properties. The manufacture of brass was a technological feat that would solely be repeated in trendy occasions because of the difficulties inherent in the course of. The undeniable fact that the Atlanteans might mass produce this alloy is a direct proof of their superior science and know-how. So is, for that matter, the truth that they might mass produce metals and gems in quantity enough to provide the ancient nations with these things so troublesome to acquire and to course of within the primitive circumstances that have been then prevalent.
The proofs of a superior science and know-how possessed by the Atlanteans are of a twofold nature: traditional and factual. In the conventional account we have now the legends and myths like these on fantastic flying machines just like the vimanas and the vahanas of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. These holy books speak of airships succesful of carrying complete armies; of weapons (agniastras) that can solely have been firearms and of explosives that, just like the atomic weapons, have been capable of wipe out whole cities. They tell of speaking machines succesful of making forecasts and of permitting the viewing of distant persons. Additionally they converse of teleportation, of telepathy, of levitation, of transmutation of the metals, of the effortless erection of megalithic buildings and buildings such because the Nice Pyramid. Such “magical means” bespeak of a superior science and know-how. Furthermore, these sacred traditions even recommend the use of genetic engineering to create the domesticated crops and animals, if not a sub-species of males meant for particular functions like that of “serving the gods”.
Superior metallic alloys similar to chrome steel, bronze and brass (“orichalc”) have existed from remotest antiquity. And no one has been in a position thus far to provide a satisfactory account of the epoch of their invention or of their place of origin. Where else however in Atlantis, the true website of the Garden of Eden? Essential innovations like the domesticated crops and animals, the alphabet, scripture, paper, gunpowder, metal-casting and smithing, brewing and distillation, medicinal medicine, electroplating, lenses, telescopes and eyeglasses, stone slicing and shaping, and a myriad such “magical creations” apparently got here to us from nowhere.
Within the official accounts, they got here from an unlikely “China”. However China was itself civilized, as have been most historic nations, by the Hindus. The Hindus, in turn, claim to have been civilized by the Atlantean Nagas. Are all of them certainly telling a lie or the truth? And why would the ancients all be lying? In our opinion, the best achievement of the ancient Atlanteans lay in the social and metaphysical sciences: Faith, Philosophy, Ethics, Regulation, Mythology, Psychology and so on. Whoever studies in depth the true scope of Greek philosophy ù as expounded by philosophers similar to Plato, Pythagoras, Aristotle, Epicurus, Zeno, Thales, Anaxagoras and a number of other others ù won’t fail to comprehend that their esoteric doctrines all root within the Hindu darshanas (philosophical methods).
The profundity of these Indian sciences up to now surpass the ones of the Occident that it is just because the end result of being blinded by ethnocentrism that our specialists have failed to comprehend the fact that our religions and our philosophical methods all got here to us from the Orient. Now, this could only have happened in the daybreak of occasions, exactly as our Holy Books and our sacred traditions keep. All these “Hindu” doctrines, in flip, root in historic treatises ascribed to legendary authors of ante-Diluvian occasions which may be none aside from those of Atlantis itself.
Faith too ù maybe the best of all creations of Man ù can only have originated in Paradise, that’s, in Atlantis itself. This is straightforward to see not solely within the historic traditions of its revelation by gods or angels or superior beings (Atlanteans), but in addition by the fact that all religions stem from a single source, the Urreligion (or “Primeval Religion”) envisaged by certain specialists of genius similar to Mircea Eliade and René Guénon. Mythology is yet one more Atlantean creation that gives the archetypes and the exemplary models of conduct and mentality that we all comply with somewhat blindly and instinctively during our lifetime. Most myths cope with Atlantis and Atlantean matters, and enmesh serendipitously with the eschatological doctrines of our religions. The place else however in destroyed Atlantis might myths resembling these of the Flood or that of the Millennium and the rebirth of the Celestial Jerusalem (Atlantis) have originated?
Who else but the Atlanteans might have subtle myths comparable to these to the whole world, together with the remotest corners of the Amazon jungle and people of Indonesia and South Asia? The reality is that each one supreme innovations ù those that turned Man into something more than an ape or a ravening beast ù got here to us from Atlantis, within the daybreak of occasions.
The one invention which allowed all others was that of agriculture, the supreme legacy of the traditional Atlanteans to us. It was agriculture that allowed the fixation of Man to the ground, and assured the supply of food with far much less labor than that required in searching and gathering foodstuffs. Agriculture created the surplus time for considering and for the development of innovations and creations that allowed us to rise over the other beasts of the sector. However once we speak of agriculture and of animal domestication we can’t overlook that these activities have been only rendered attainable by the factitious creation of species and strains of a really specific nature.
Such developments require the use of advanced genetic engineering quite like or even superior to the fashionable ones. With its peculiar vanity, trendy science has been completely incapable of creating even a single instance of domesticated plant or animal past those we inherited from the daybreak of occasions, the epoch of our Atlantean forefathers. Many of these crops and animals ù particularly the canine, the pig, the goat, maize, wheat, barley, cotton, coconuts, pineapples, yam, potatoes, bananas, grapes and lots of others ù existed both in the Previous and within the New World. Moreover, many of these responded by the identical identify on each side of the world. Who else however the Atlantean Sons of God might have created them and brought them to the other distant nations of the world? That is precisely what the holiest traditions of all peoples declare, the world over. Why would all of them lie such an important difficulty as this one? Moreover, once we search the true place of origin of all these magnificent creations of males or gods, we confirm that they’ve been all the time current and apparently got here from nowhere. The specialists are arduous put to inform the date and the place of their origin, and their researches push all of them, evermore, in the direction of the Far East, the true place of origin of agriculture and of civilization.
Other sciences that clearly show the existence of Atlantis are those of Astronomy and Geodesy. Some historic maps of the world, comparable to these of Piri Reis and of Oronteus Finaeus, embody an uncanny information of the whole world that would not have been obtained in any respect with no sophisticate system of cartography and geodesy. And this, in flip, requires a complicated information of spherical trigonometry, of logarithms, of projective geometry and of related sciences. Moreover, this precision mapping requires the use of very correct devices like chronometers, telescopes, sextants, armilary spheres, and so forth, for the willpower of the stellar coordinates and of the place of the observer on the time of statement. The creation of such devices again requires a complicated science and know-how in fields corresponding to optics, metallurgy and supplies science. Who else however the Atlanteans might have possessed this know-how so early in time?
The similar superb precision and superior science obtains in the case of Astronomy. The ancients knew ù but clearly lacked the potential for having discovered such details ù concerning the two moons of Mars, the twelve of Jupiter, the ten of Saturn. Furthermore, they knew of the heliocentricity of the Photo voltaic System, of the nine planets, and the rings of Saturn, in addition to of the fact that Sirius, the most important star within the sky, has a invisible twin of extremely excessive density. These and lots of different astronomical information can solely be observed with very giant telescopes and very refined observational methods. Such devices and methods might only have been developed by the Atlanteans and by no different nation, barring extra-terrestrials and angelic powers.
The ancients have been also capable of calculating and effecting stellar alignments of a tremendous precision. Their accuracy typically exceeds what trendy astronomers can do, even with the perfect of pc packages. That they had an virtually superior capability to predict astronomical dates and ephemerides each within the distant previous and in the distant future. These dates they inequivocally indicated by means of correct alignments embedded within the Great Pyramid and in different artifacts that many traditions attribute to the Atlanteans. Likewise, the Nice Pyramid additionally embodies such geodetical measurements as the lengths of the Polar Meridian and the Equatorial Circle to a precision that favorably compares to those obtained lately by geodetical satellites. We talk about these issues in detail in our ebook on Atlantis, to which we refer the reader.
MOUNTAIN TERRACE CULTIVATION
As we stated above, the greatest of human inventions was that of Agriculture. Agriculture allowed the fixation of Man to the soil and, therefore, the rise of civilization and the event of all arts and sciences. However, unique of an slash-and-burn agriculture that does not permit this fixation, some means to renew the fertility of the soil in a permanent trend had but to be discovered.
Within the trendy world, this is achieved by the chemical synthesis of fertilizers or, in uncommon situations, by composting the residues of animals and crops. Within the historic world, the renovation of the soil was insured by two primary processes. The first one consisted in taking advantage of the yearly floods of rivers such as the Nile, the Tigris, the Euphrates, the Indus, the Ganges and the Irrawady. The floodwaters introduced the silt that was deposited in the fields, renewing the soil and irrigating the plantation. This process continues to be extensively used in the Far East, the place it in all probability originated in Atlantean occasions.
The different course of utilizes volcanoes to insure the renovation of the soil. Volcanic cinders are immensely fertile. Volcanic fly ash descends with the rains, overlaying the soil and fertilizing it. Such was the rationale the ancient civilizations typically arose vicinally to volcanoes: in Italy, in Peru, in Mexico, in Crete and, notably, in Indonesia. Certainly, plainly volcanic-based agriculture developed sooner than flood-based agriculture. As all issues indicate, the primary website of all to utilize this advanced method was Indonesia, the true website of the Garden of Eden and of the origin of civilization.
Indonesia is probably the most volcanically lively region on the planet. Even as we speak Indonesia derives its peerless fertility from the various volcanoes that make each its glory and its periodic doom. Nevertheless, for the volcanic cinders to be really useful, one other clever invention had to be carried out: that of terraced agriculture.
Volcanic areas resembling Indonesia are mountainous. In mountains, the rains tend to scrub down the soil, stopping their agricultural use. The use of terraces, nevertheless, prevents this down-washing, conserving both the water and the fertilizers of the agricultural soil. The rain water is saved in dams at the prime of the mountains, and is made to wind its means alongside the terraces, the place the plantation is completed. The end result is a gigantic manufacturing which frequently yields two and even three crops a yr. This function was identified by Plato in his description of Atlantis.
If the good thinker was not mendacity shamelessly, we’re led to conclude that irrigated, terraced agriculture was certainly an Atlantean invention. Terraced agriculture is to be discovered, even as we speak, in most areas of Atlantean influence the place volcanoes exist: the Indonesian islands, Japan, China, Southern Italy (Etna, Vesuvius), Crete (Thera), the Peruvian Andes, Mexico, and so forth..
The custom of terraced agriculture goes hand in hand with the one of stepped pyramids. Certainly, stepped pyramids symbolize the Holy Mountain, itself a volcano whose slopes have been terraced for agricul tural causes. This Holy Mountain is not any aside from Mt. Atlas and, extra precisely, Mt. Meru. Mt. Meru is, as we already stated, the sacred mountain of the Hindus and the Buddhists of India, Indonesia and the Far East usually. The legend of Mount Meru subsumes the tragedy of Atlantis. Interested in that volcanic peak like flies to honey, the Atlanteans there met their doom ultimately.
When their volcano exploded, killing them en masse, and extinguishing their formidably advanced civilization, the Atlanteans disappeared from the scene. But they left behind their legend, which is as undieing as the smile of the Cheshire cat. The tradition of terraced agriculture symbolized by the stepped pyramids is encountered even in nations that had no volcanoes and, even much less, terrace based mostly agriculture. Such was the case of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Their fascination with these two options can solely be the outcome of an intensive Atlantean affect. The legendary Civilizing Heroes of these nations ù personages resembling Thoth, Osiris, Dercetto and the Oannès ù have been indeed Atlanteans mythified as gods and recognized with the Nagas (or Titans) of Indonesia.
The first Egyptian pyramid, the one of Zozer, was a stepped pyramid which corresponds in each shape and ritual perform with those of Indonesia (Borobudur) and Southeast Asia (Angkor Vat, Angkor Thom, Bakong, and so on.). As we see, there could be hardly any doubt that the custom of pyramid building derives from that of terraced agriculture and that each traditions originated in Indonesia, the true website of Atlantis, of Eden, and of the origin of Agriculture. How else might the custom of terrassed agriculture have reached Egypt and Babylon, ù the place it by no means existed ù but from the Far East, the place it was developed? Whence else might it have reached each the Previous and the New Worlds so early in time?
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon ù one of the Seven Wonders of the Historic World ù have been no different factor than a terraced mountain created artificially. The Babylonian ziggurats (or “temple-mountains”) have been indeed stepped pyramids representing the identical concept. The similar factor also obtains in Egypt and within the Americas. Queen Hatshepsut also constructed her duplicate of the “Garden of Lebanon”, which is none but the Garden of Eden replicated by Queen Semiramis.
King Solomon, consistent with this historic custom, also constructed his own copy of the Garden of Eden (primeval “Lebanon”) near his palace, in a legendary Jerusalem that by no means was certainly, except within the Atlantean custom, where it is just an alter identify for Atlantis’ capital city.
The Egyptians typically represented such “gardens” by an effigy of Osiris planted with corn, his present to humanity. Osiris, the dying-resurrecting god of the Holy Mountain was, like Atlas, thought-about to be the Pillar of Heaven (Tet). Indeed, the Egyptian Tale the Two Brothers is an virtually verbatim duplicate of the one of Atlas and Gadeiros, the many-named co-rulers of Atlantis in line with Plato. The two brothers contend, and one kills the opposite, who later resurrects from among the many lifeless. As we see, this duel corresponds to the one of Osiris and Seth, in addition to its many counterparts. But all these are inded allegories of the Conflict of Atlantis, where the 2 brothers are the “Greeks” and the Atlanteans, who struggle to the bitter finish and to their own mutual destruction.
One of the surest of all genetic traits connecting two totally different populational groups is that of blood varieties. Newer research has led to genotypes which might be even more efficient for that function. A worldwide challenge, is now in course to find out the genotypes of the various human teams, and in a number of years we will determine with certainty who’s who and who derived from whom. However, in the intervening time we have to be content material with far lower than that. What we now have personally been capable of decide to date is that O Blood Sort is typical of what we might call the “Red Races” of Atlantis. This sort of blood is attribute of the purple races of the Americas; of the Canarian Guanches; of the Basques of France and Spain, of the Scandinavians, of the Celts of the British Isles and the Atlantic coasts of France, as well as of certain peoples of Polynesia and Indonesia.
This distribution of O Blood Sort strongly means that these peoples entered Europe from Indonesia, by way of the Indian and the Atlantic Oceans, exactly as legends akin to these of Celts, the Romans, and the Greeks claim. Moreover, this distribution also suggests an inroad from the Indies in the direction of the Far East, reaching all the best way to the Americas, by way of Melanesia and Polynesia. In different phrases, plainly the origin of this O-blooded population was primeval Indonesia and the sunken lands of the region, the very website of Atlantis.
Plato could not, of course, have foretold such a modern improvement. However it’s excess of a coincidence that the traditional “Reds” or “Royals” (Kshatryas or Rajputs = “Sons of Kings”) claimed to have a unique blood than commoners, the so-called “blue-blood”. Perhaps this is yet one more legacy of the Atlantean science degenarated into a legendary tradition on the existence of a superior race of totally different blood destined to rule the others.
Accordingly, we marked the entries on our Guidelines on this challenge, as follows:
Doubtful (?): Plato, Thera/Crete, Sunken Atlantic Island, Antarctica, Tartessos, for we do not yet have a method of figuring out the blood varieties of these populations. Nevertheless, this can be a particular future risk with fossil research of mitochondrial DNA.
Constructive prospects (V) are: Scandinavia, the Incas, the Mayas, the African Northwest (Berbers), Celtiberia and certain white populations of Polynesia and the Indies.
The only particular exclusion (X) in our Guidelines is Schliemann’s Troy, in Hissarlik (Turkey), as the blood varieties of Japanese Europe and the Close to East are characteristically of the A-type, a positive indicator of an Asiatic origin. In fact, this reality likewise tends to exclude certain proposed places which we did not record, such as the Bosphorus and the Caucasus, as well as sites farther east, both in Europe and Asia.
Depart a Word: